Marcus Key, Joseph Priestley Professor of Natural Philosophy

Photograph of Marcus Key

Department of Earth Sciences
Kaufman Building, Room 143
Dickinson College
Carlisle, PA 17013-2896
USA

Phone: 717.245.1448
E-Mail: key@dickinson.edu

Education

1979-1981 University of Colorado; Boulder, CO; Department of Geological Sciences; geology major.

1981-1983 University of Texas; Austin, TXDepartment of Geological Sciences; B.S. in 1983 with Highest Honors from the College of Natural Sciences and Special Honors from the Department of Geological Sciences; Honors Thesis title: Molluscan Species Richness from the K/T Boundary to the Upper Eocene; Thesis advisor: Thor A. Hansen.

1984-1988 Yale University; New Haven, CT; Department of Geology and Geophysics; M.Ph. in 1986; Ph.D. in 1988; Dissertation title: Evolution of the Halloporid Clade (Bryozoa: Trepostomata) in the Ordovician Simpson Group of Oklahoma; Dissertation advisor: David E. Schindel.

Research Interests

My interest is in inferring evolutionary and sedimentary patterns and processes using fossil and living organisms. My current research involves marine biofouling, functional morphology, and carbonate production rates of bryozoans.

Bryozoans
Cool water carbonate production rates

Evolution of epibiosis
Biomechanics of bryozoan feeding
Geoarcheology, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

Appraisal of fossil collections – I evaluate the value of fossil collections for estate settlements, making tax deductible gift donations, etc.

Publication List

Published Papers

(* indicates Dickinson College student co-author)  

Published Abstracts

(* indicates Dickinson College student co-author):

Phillips, N. J.*, M. M. Key, Jr., A. M. Smith, and J. S. Forrester. 2017. To pretreat or not to pretreat: Removal of organic material for stable isotope analysis in temperate skeletal carbonate. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 49 (6): doi: 10.1130/abs/2017AM-300894.

Håkansson, E., M. M. Key, and A. Ernst.2016. Evactinostella & Lyroporella – weird and wonderful bryozoans from Western Australia. Pp. 49. In: A. Smith and G. Walker-Smith (eds.). Program and Abstracts of the 17th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Melbourne, Australia, 10-15 April 2016.

Key, M. M., Jr., M. S. Burkhart*, and M. O’Leary. 2016. Eocene bryozoans preserved in chert from the Wilson Bluff Limestone, Eucla Basin, Western Australia. Pp. 55. In: A. Smith and G. Walker-Smith (eds.). Program and Abstracts of the 17th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Melbourne, Australia, 10-15 April 2016.

Key, M. M., Jr., P. N. Wyse Jackson, and S. H. Felton. 2016. Intracolony variation in zoarial morphology in reassembled fossil ramose stenolaemate bryozoans from the Upper Ordovician (Katian) of the Cincinnati Arch region, USA. Pp. 56. In: A. Smith and G. Walker-Smith (eds.). Program and Abstracts of the 17th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Melbourne, Australia, 10-15 April 2016.

Reid, C., E. Håkansson, A. Ernst, and M. M. Key, Jr. 2016. Observations of large Palaeozoic bryozoans and comparison to modern paradigms. Pp. 77. In: A. Smith and G. Walker-Smith (eds.). Program and Abstracts of the 17th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Melbourne, Australia, 10-15 April 2016.

Smith, A. M., M. M. Key, Jr. and A. C. L. Wood. 2016. Culturing large erect shelf bryozoans: skeletal growth measured using calcein staining in culture. Pp. 83. In: A. Smith and G. Walker-Smith (eds.). Program and Abstracts of the 17th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Melbourne, Australia, 10-15 April 2016.

Wyse Jackson, P. N., M. M. Key, Jr., N. Lennon, and B. S. Kamber. 2016. Minor element distribution in Recent cupuladriid bryozoans from either side of the Isthmus of Panama: potential proxies for environmental reconstruction. Pp. 95. In: A. Smith and G. Walker-Smith (eds.). Program and Abstracts of the 17th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Melbourne, Australia, 10-15 April 2016.

Wyse Jackson, P.N., and M. M. Key, Jr. 2016. Epizoan and endoskeletozoan distribution across reassembled ramose stenolaemate bryozoan zoaria from the Upper Ordovician (Katian) of the Cincinnati Arch region, USA. Pp. 96. In: A. Smith and G. Walker-Smith (eds.). Program and Abstracts of the 17th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Melbourne, Australia, 10-15 April 2016.

Burkhart, M. S.*, M. M. Key, Jr., I. Ward, and M. O’Leary. 2015. Sourcing Aboriginal lithic artifacts from Western Australia using Eocene bryozoans. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 47 (7): 515.

Håkansson, E., M. M. Key, Jr., and A. Ernst. 2015. Evactinostella crucialis – another weird and wonderful bryozoan. Pp. 26. In: Programme, Abstracts and AGM papers: The Palaeontological Association 59th Annual Meeting, Cardiff, Wales.

Smith, A. M., M. M. Key, Jr., and A. C. L. Wood.  2015.  Bryozoans and calcein: potential for fluorescent marking.  Pp. 25. In: J. Loxton and J. S. Porter (eds.). Abstracts and Programme of the 13th Larwood Symposium, Thurso, Scotland, 17-20 June 2015.

Smith, A. M., M. M. Key, Jr., and A. C. L. Wood.  2015.  Bryozoans and calcein: potential for fluorescent marking.  Pp. 1. Abstracts and Programme of the 6th AustraLarwood Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 9-11 November 2015.

Milliman, L. P.*, and M. M. Key, Jr. 2014. Determining the provenance of a stone paver from a Maryland colonial plantation. Geological Society of America Abstracts with programs. 46 (6): 93. 

Wyse Jackson, P. N., M. M. Key, Jr., and S. P. Coakley, 2013. Pp. 88. In: A. Rosso and S. Sanfilippo (eds.). Abstract Volume of the 16th International Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Catania, Italy. University of Catania. 

Key, M. M., Jr., and P. N. Wyse Jackson. 2013.  Use of fossil bryozoans as provenance indicators. Pp. 38. In: A. Rosso and S. Sanfilippo (eds.). Abstract Volume of the 16th International Conference of the International Bryozoology Association, Catania, Italy.  University of Catania.

Rossi, R. K*., M. M. Key, Jr., A. M. Smith, S. Hageman, and W. P. Patterson. 2012. Reconstructing annual seawater temperature cycles using stable isotope profiles in modern bryozoans from the Snares Platform, New Zealand. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 44(7): ?.

Hageman, S. J., A. M. Smith, M. M. Key, Jr. 2012. Growth cycles in the temperate bryozoan Melicerita chathamensis, southern New Zealand: a new tool for paleoseasonality? Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 44(7): ?.

Key, M. M., Jr., P. M. Hollenbeck*, A. O’Dea, and W. P. Patterson. 2012. Stable isotope profiling in modern marine bryozoan colonies across the Isthmus of Panama. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 44(7): ?.

Rossi, R. K*., and M. M. Key, Jr. 2011. Sourcing black limestone gravestones in late 17th century colonial Virginia. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 43(5): 294.

Key, M. M., Jr., J. B. Knauff*, and D. K. A. Barnes. 2010. “If you can't beat them, join them”: epizoic bryozoans on predatory pycnogonids from the South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. Terra Nostra. 2010/4: 57-58.

Key, M. M., Jr., G. A. Schumacher, and L. E. Babcock, 2010. Palaeoecology of commensal episkeletozoans fouling Flexicalymene (Trilobita) from the Late Ordovician Cincinnati Arch region. Pp. 227-228. In: Programme & Abstracts, International Palaentological Congress 3, London.

Key, M. M., Jr., A. M. Smith. and D. P. Gordon. 2008. Using skeletons of extinct and extant bryozoans to test the calcite-aragonite seas hypothesis. Pp. 26-27. In: M. Cusack, A. Owen, and N. Clark (eds.). Abstracts: The Palaeontological Association 52nd Annual Meeting, Glasgow, Scotland.

Key, M. M., Jr., P. N. Wyse Jackson, K. E. Miller*, and W. P. Patterson. 2007. A stable isotopic test for the origin of fossil brown bodies in trepostome bryozoans from the Ordovician of Estonia. Pp. 32. In: S. J. Hageman and F. K. McKinney (eds.). Abstracts with Program: 14th Meeting of the International Bryozoology Association. Boone, North Carolina.

Buttler, C. J., P. N. Wyse Jackson, and M. M. Key, Jr. 2007. Bryozoa from the Ordovician (Caradoc) of Courtown, Co. Wexford, Ireland. Pp. 7. In: S. J. Hageman and F. K. McKinney (eds.). Abstracts with Program: 14th Meeting of the International Bryozoology Association. Boone, North Carolina.

Key, M. M., Jr., K. E. Miller*, W. Patterson, and M. Novosel. 2006. The role of submarine groundwater discharge in maintaining unique submarine spring benthic ecosystems in the Adriatic Sea, Croatia. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 38(7): 327.

Miller, K. E*., M. M. Key, Jr., W. P. Patterson, M. Novosel, and S. Cocito. 2006. Seasonal isotope profiling to determine growth rates in an extant giant bryozoan from the Adriatic Sea, Croatia. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 38(2): 76.

Wyse Jackson, P. N., M. M. Key, Jr., and M. E. Burns*. 2005. Bored bryozoans from the Ordovician of Estonia: a biological reinterpretation of the ichnogenus Sanctum Erickson and Bouchard, 2003. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 37(7): 404.

Smith, A. M., M. M. Key, Jr., C. S. Nelson, and W. P. Patterson. 2005. Stable isotope values in modern bryozoan carbonate: potential for paleoenvironmental interpretation. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Convention Abstracts Volume. 14: A131.

Samson, T. M.*, M. M. Key, Jr., P. N. Wyse Jackson, and W. P. Patterson. 2005. Implications of sampling strategy on C and O isotope chemostratigraphy: a test from the Ordovician of Estonia. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 37(1): 69.

Key, M. M., Jr., G. A. Schumacher, and L. E. Babcock. 2004. Trilobites as a hard substrate for episkeletozoans from the Upper Ordovician of the Cincinnati, Ohio area. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 36(5): 111.

Key, M. M., Jr., and A. M. Smith. 2003. From plate tectonics to bryozoan evolution. Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion. 74: 75.

Key, M. M., Jr., P. N. Wyse Jackson, E. Håkansson, W. P. Patterson, and M. D. Moore*. 2003. C and O isotopic test of the algal symbiosis hypothesis for gigantism in Permian trepostomes from Greenland. Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion. 74: 74.

Smith, A. M., and M. M. Key, Jr. 2003. From plate tectonics to bryozoan evolution. Geological Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Publication 116A: 134.

Key, M. M., Jr., P. N. Wyse Jackson, E. Håkansson, W. P. Patterson, and M. D. Moore*. 2003. Gigantism in Permian trepostomes from Greenland: stable isotope evidence of the algal symbiosis hypothesis. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 35(6): 420.

Key, M. M., Jr., M. D. Moore*, W. P. Patterson, and P. N. Wyse Jackson. 2002. A stable isotope test for diagenesis comparing brachiopods, bryozoans, and cements in the Ordovician Duncannon Group, southeastern Ireland. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 34(6): 17.

Key, M. M., Jr., P. N. Wyse Jackson, A. M. Smith, and C. M. Jamet*. 2001. Oxygen isotope seasonal profiling as a tool for measuring growth rates and inferring carbonate production rates in fossil bryozoans. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 33(6): A248-A249.

Wyse Jackson, P. N., C. J. Buttler, and M. M. Key, Jr. 2001. Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Tramore Limestone Formation (Llandeilo, Ordovician) based on bryozoan colony form and preservation. Pp. 115. In: P. N. Wyse Jackson (ed.). International Bryozoology Association Twelfth International Conference Programme, Abstracts and Delegates. Trinity College. Dublin, Ireland.

Smith, A. M., B. Stewart, M. M. Key, Jr., and C. M. Jamet*. 2001. Adeonellopsis sp. in Doubtful Sound - a surprisingly long-lived bryozoan. Pp. 100. In: P. N. Wyse Jackson (ed.). International Bryozoology Association Twelfth International Conference Programme, Abstracts and Delegates. Trinity College. Dublin, Ireland.

Key, M. M., Jr., L. Thrane, and J. A. Collins*. 2001. Functional morphology of maculae in a giant ramose trepostome bryozoan from the Permian of Greenland. Pp. 64. In: P. N. Wyse Jackson (ed.). International Bryozoology Association Twelfth International Conference Programme, Abstracts and Delegates. Trinity College. Dublin, Ireland.

Key, M. M., Jr., L. Thrane, and J. A. Collins*. 2000. Functional morphology of maculae in a giant ramose trepostome bryozoan from the Permian of Greenland. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 32(7): A370.

Key, M. M., Jr., P. N. Wyse Jackson, A. M. Smith, and C. M. Jamet*. 1999. Measuring growth rates in fossil bryozoans: inferences for carbonate production. Palaeontological Association Newsletter Annual Meeting Abstracts. 42: 25-26.

Key, M. M., Jr., C. M. Jamet*, and A. M. Smith. 1999. Bryozoan skeletal growth rates: a new tool for determining carbonate production rate, Otago Shelf, New Zealand. Pp. 121-122. In: G. F. Camoin and W. C. Dullo (eds.). Paleoceanology of Reefs and Carbonate Platforms: Miocene to Modern, Abstract Book. Special Publication 32 of the Association des Sédimentologistes Français. Paris.

Key, M. M., Jr., C. M. Jamet*, and A. M. Smith. 1998. Bryozoan colony growth rates: a proxy for cool-water marine carbonate production rates. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 30(7): A28.

Robertson, M. S.*, M. M. Key, Jr., and R. Kerhin. 1998. Sedimentology and mineralogy of the Susquehanna Flats, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Pp. 30-31. In: R. A. McBride, C. Galvin, and S. J. Williams (eds.). Assateague Shelf and Shore Workshop ’98, Technical Program and Abstracts. George Mason University. Fairfax, Virginia.

Robertson, M. S.*, M. M. Key, Jr., and R. Kerhin. 1998. Sedimentology and mineralogy of the Susquehanna Flats, Chesapeake Bay, MD. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 30(1): 70-71.

Ustick, J. A.*, and M. M. Key, Jr. 1998. Stratigraphy of the Cambrian Elbrook Formation in south central Pennsylvania: simple bedding, cleavage reoriented bedding, or groundwater-induced diagenesis? Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 30(1): 81.

Key, M. M., Jr., W. B. Jeffries, H. K. Voris, and C. M. Yang. 1998. Bryozoan fouling pattern on the horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Müller) from Singapore. Pp. 45. In: A. Herrera Cubilla and J. B. C. Jackson (eds.). Eleventh International Bryozoology Association Conference Abstracts. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Balboa, Panama.

Jones, T. E.*, and M. M. Key, Jr. 1997. Geoarcheology of terra cotta clay tobacco pipes from the colonial Davis Site (44La46) in Lancaster County, Virginia. P. 205. In: S. Estroff (ed.). Abstracts of the 1997 American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting in Washington, DC. America Anthropological Association. Arlington, VA.

Allen, R. A.*, and M. M. Key, Jr. 1997. Earth’s cratering history as derived from the Phanerozoic terrestrial record and predicted from the Precambrian Lunar, Martian, and Mercurian records. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 29(1): 26-27.

Witte, K. M.*, and M. M. Key, Jr. 1997. Impact of the Kraomita Malagasy chromite mine and processing facilities on stream water quality and siltation in Madagascar. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 29(1): 90.

Gourley, J. R.*, and M. M. Key, Jr. 1996. Analysis of the Skolithos ichnofacies from the Cambrian Montalto Quartzite Member of the Harpers Formation in south central Pennsylvania. Pp. 152. In: J. E. Repetski (ed.). North American Paleontological Convention Abstracts of Papers. Paleontological Society, Special Publication, No. 8.

Erdman, J. S.*, M. M. Key, Jr., and R. L. Davis. 1996. Hydrogeology of the Cockburn Town aquifer, San Salvador, Bahamas and the change in water quality resulting from the development of a resort community. p. 16-17. In: D. Suchy and J. Carew (eds.). Abstracts and Program of the 8th Symposium on the Geology of the Bahamas; San Salvador, Bahamas; Bahamian Field Station.

Erdman, J. S.*, M. M. Key, Jr., and R. L. Davis. 1996. Hydrogeology of the Cockburn Town aquifer, San Salvador, Bahamas and the change in water quality resulting from the development of a resort community. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 28(3): A51.

Key, M. M., Jr., S. B. Lockhart, and L. L. Stoltz. 1995. The geology side of IMAST (A project-based, vertically and horizontally integrated curriculum collaboration between K-12 and college teachers). Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 27(6): A355.

Volpe, J. W.*, M. M. Key, Jr., W. B. Jeffries, H. K. Voris, and C. M. Yang. 1995. Epibiosis on ephemeral living substrates. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science. 68: 196.

Key, M. M., Jr., W. B. Jeffries, H. K. Voris, and C. M. Yang. 1995. Epizoic bryozoans and ephemeral host substrata. Pp. 60. In: D. P. Gordon (ed.). Tenth International Bryozoology Association Conference Abstracts. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute. Wellington, New Zealand.

Collins, J. A.*, M. M. Key, Jr., and L. Madsen. 1994. Functional morphology of ramose trepostome bryozoans and other cylindrical modular organisms. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 26(3): 11.

Key, M. M., Jr., S. M. Lev*, and A. Lighthart*. 1993. A paleobiologic test for diastems using the internal stratigraphy of trepostome bryozoans. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 25(6): A331.

Key, M. M., Jr., S. M. Lev*, and A. Lighthart*. 1992. Colony control over skeletal growth rates in trepostome bryozoans. Pp. 29. In: J. S. Ryland (ed.). Ninth International Bryozoology Association Conference Abstracts. University of Wales. Swansea, Wales.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1992. Macroevolutionary patterns in bryozoans. Pp. 164. In: S. Lidgard and P. R. Crane (eds.). North American Paleontological Convention Abstracts and Program. Paleontological Society, Special Publication, No. 6.

Lev, S. M.*, M. M. Key, Jr., and A. Lighthart*. 1992. Control of colony morphology by zooecial growth rates in hemispherical trepostome bryozoans. Pp. GEOL 1. In: W. T. Lavell (ed.). 46th Annual Eastern Colleges Science Conference Program with Abstracts. United States Naval Academy. Annapolis, MD.

Key, M. M., Jr., G. M. Becker*, A. B. Judd*, and A. Lighthart*. 1992. Insoluble residue analysis of modern and ancient carbonate environments, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 24: 31-32.

Key, M. M., Jr., S. M. Lev*, and A. Lighthart*. 1991. Skeletal growth rates in hemispherical trepostome bryozoans. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 23(5): A164.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1990. Skeletal growth rates in Paleozoic ramose trepostome bryozoans. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 22(7): A34.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1989. Phylogeny reconstruction in trepostome bryozoans. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 21(6): A112.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1989. How to build a ramose trepostome. Pp. 28. In: F. P. Bigey and J.-L. d'Hondt (eds.). Eighth International Bryozoology Association Conference Abstracts. Universite P. et M. Curie. Paris, France.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1988. Progressive macroevolutionary patterns in colonial animals. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 20(7): A201.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1986. Partitioning of morphologic variation across stability gradients in Upper Ordovician trepostomes. Pp. 29. In: J. R. P. Ross (ed.). Seventh International Bryozoology Association Conference Abstracts. Western Washington University. Bellingham, WA.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1985. Environmental stability and morphologic variation in the bryozoan Homotrypa obliqua. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 17(7): 628.
 

Published Non-Peer Reviewed Articles:

Key, M. M., Jr. 2014. Energy, global warming, and student behavior. Dickinson Science Magazine. 1 (1): 35.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2013. Bryozoan jewelry. International Bryozoology Association Bulletin. 9(2): 15.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2012. Shifting baselines (letter to the editor regarding biological conservation). American Scientist. 100: 99.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2008. Review of The Chronologer’s Quest – The Search for the Age of the Earth by P. N. Wyse Jackson. Priscum. Summer issue: 14-15.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2002. Presentation of the Paleontological Society Medal to Alan H. Cheetham. Journal of Paleontology. 76(4): 783.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2001. Review of Evolutionary Patterns - Growth, Form and Tempo in the Fossil Record by J. B. C. Jackson, S. Lidgard, and F. K. McKinney. Historical Biology. 15(3): 271-272.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2000. Review of The Idea of Time by C. H. Holland. Geotimes. 45(8): 33.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2000. Annual highlights in invertebrates. Geotimes. 45(7): 35.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2000. Review of Controversy, Catastrophism and Evolution: The Ongoing Debate by T. Palmer. Geological Curator. 7(3): 123.

Key, M. M., Jr. 2000. Review of Life - A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth by R. Fortey. Geotimes. 45(5): 32.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1999. Annual highlights in invertebrate paleontology. Geotimes. 44(7): 47-48.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1996. Evolution of science education at Dickinson. Dickinson Magazine. 6(2): 24-25.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1993. Review of Fossils: The Key to the Past by R. Fortey. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 68(1): 97.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1992. Review of The Evolution of Reef Communities by J. A. Fagerstrom. American Journal of Science. 292(2): 151-152.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1990. Review of Fossils as Information - New Recording and Stratal Correlation Techniques by N. F. Hughes. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 65(4): 492.

Key, M. M., Jr. 1989. Review of Fossil Invertebrates by R. S. Boardman, A. H. Cheetham, and A. J. Rowell. American Scientist. 77(5): 485.